Acidity: Describes a tart or sour taste in the mouth when total acidity of the wine is high.
A component of wine generally consisting of tartaric acid. Very important in wine, this gives the wine that crisp taste.
Appellation: The place in which the dominant grapes used in the wines were grown. This place can be an American Viticulture Area (AVA), a defined grape-growing region, which means 85 percent of the more of the wine was produced from grapes grown in the named area.
Aftertaste: The taste or flavors that linger in the mouth after the wine is tasted. May be "harsh", "hot", "soft", "lingering", "short", "smooth", or nonexistent. See also "Finish".
Aroma: Refers to the particular smell of the grape variety, i.e. "appley", "raisiny", "fresh" or "floral".
Balance: The relationship linking the four basic components in a wine: sweetness, acidity, tannins and alcohol. Fruit softens a wine’s balance, while acidity, alcohol and tannins firm up at the wine.
Body: The weight or viscosity of wine in your mouth, commonly expressed as full-bodied, medium-bodied or light-bodied.
Bouquet: A tasting term used to describe the smell of the wine as it matures in the bottle.
Complexity: These are the different flavors and textures that you taste in a wine. In most cases, the more complex, the better the quality.
Finish: The taste that remains in the mouth after swallowing. A long finish indicates a wine of good quality.
Legs: The viscous droplets that form and ease down the sides of the glass when the wine is swirled. This is an indication of the alcohol present in the wine.
Length: The amount of time the sensations of taste and aroma persist after swallowing.
Mouth feel: The texture of the wine, how it feels in the mouth and against the tongue.
Nose: See "Aroma"
Palate: The feel and taste of wine in the mouth.
Terms about a wine's character
Acrid: Describes a wine with overly pronounced acidity. This is often apparent in cheap red wines.
Assertive: Upfront, forward.
Attractive: A lighter style. Fresh, easy to drink wine.
Balanced: Indicates that the fruit, acid, and wood flavors are in the right proportion. A wine is well balanced when none of those characteristics dominates. Wine not in balance may be "acidic", "cloying", "flat", or "harsh".
Big: A wine that is full-bodied, rich and slightly alcoholic tasting.
Character: A wine with top-notch distinguishing qualities.
Crisp: Denotes a fresh, young wine with good acidity.
Closed: Describes wines that are concentrated and have character, but are shy in aroma or flavor.
Complete: A full-bodied wine rich in extracts with a pronounced finish.
Complex: Describes a wine that combines all flavor and taste components in harmony.
Delicate: Used to describe light-to-medium weight wines with good flavors.
Dense: Describes a wine that has concentrated aromas on the nose and palate, desirable in young wines.
Depth: Describes the complexity and concentration of flavors in a wine. Generally refers to a quality wine with subtle layers of flavor that go "deep". Opposite of "Shallow".
Developed: Refers to the maturity of a wine.
Elegant: Describes a wine of grace, balance and beauty.
Empty: Flavorless and uninteresting.
Fading: Describes a wine that is losing color, fruit, or flavor, usually as a result of age.
Flabby: Lacking acidity on the palate.
Flat: Having low acidity; the next stage after flabby; or refers to a sparkling wine that has lost its
Full-Bodied: Fills the mouth. Opposite of "thin-bodied".
Graceful: Describes a wine that is subtly harmonious and pleasing.
Neutral: Describes a wine without outstanding characteristics, good or bad.
Potent: Describes a strong, intense, powerful wine.
Robust: Describes a full-bodied, intense and vigorous wine.
Round: Describes a well-balanced wine in fruit, tannins and body.
Seductive: A wine that is appealing.
Short: Describes a wine that does not remain on the palate after swallowing. Common in inexpensive wines, but not necessarily a fault.
Simple: Describes a wine with few characteristics that follow the initial impression. Not necessarily unfavorable; often describes an inexpensive, young wine.
Soft: Describes a wine with low acid/tannin, or alcohol content with little impact on the palate.
Supple: Describes a wine with well-balanced tannins and fruit characteristics.
Thin: Lacking body and depth.
Terms about the wine's taste
Barn-yardy: Smell of earth, truffle, and wet leaves.
Bite: A marked degree of acidity or tannin. An acid grip in the finish should be more like a zestful tang and is tolerable only in a rich, full-bodied wine.
Bitter: Considered a fault if the bitterness dominates the flavor or aftertaste. A trace in sweet wines may complement the flavors. A fine, mature wine should not be bitter on the palate.
Buttery: It refers to both flavor and texture or mouth feel. Common among chardonnay, especially new world.
Chewy: Describes rich, heavy, tannic wines that are full-bodied.
Corked: The wine smells of cork, it is unpleasant to smell and taste, slightly musty. The flavor of the wine will typically be flat and dull.
Dirty: Covers any and all foul, rank, off-putting smells that can occur in a wine, including those caused by bad barrels or corks. A sign of poor winemaking.
Earthy: Describes a wine that tastes of soil, most common in red wines. Can be used both positively (pleasant, clean quality adding complexity to aroma and flavor) and negatively (barnyardy character bordering on dirtiness).
Flinty: Describe the aroma or taste of some white wines; like the odor of flint striking steel. Often used to describe Riesling.
Fruity: Describes any quality referring to the body and richness of a wine, i.e. "appley," "berrylike," or "herbaceous." Usually implies a little extra sweetness.
Grapey: Describes simple flavors and aromas associated with fresh table grapes.
Green: Tasting of un-ripe fruit. Not necessarily a bad thing, especially in a Riesling.
Heady: Used to describe the smell of a wine high in alcohol.
Herbaceous: The taste and smell of herbs.
Murky: Lacking brightness; turbid or swampy.
Musty: Having a moldy smell.
Oaky: Describes the aroma and taste of oak.
Peppery: Describes the taste of pepper in a wine; sharper than 'Spicy.' Good zinfandel often has a black pepper aroma, while Rhone Valley Syrah can have white pepper aromas.
Perfumed: Refers to a delicate bouquet.
Smoky: Describes a subtle wood-smoke aroma. Attributable to barrel fermenting or aging.
Spicy: Describes the presence of spice flavors such as anise, cinnamon, cloves, mint and pepper,
often present in complex wines.
Sweet: One of the four basic tastes. Describes the presence of residual sugar and/or glycerin.
Tannin: Describes a dry sensation, with flavors of leather and tea.
Tart: Sharp-tasting because of acidity. See also 'Acidic.'
Toasty: Describes a hint of the wooden barrel. Usually associated with dry white wines.
Velvety: Having rich flavor and a silky texture.
Zesty: A wine that's invigorating.
Red varietals from full to light-bodied
Is the noble red wine grape that has made the wines of Bordeaux renowned and is on the world’s most recognized and loved varieties? Today this stately grape is grown is nearly every major wine-producing region from California to France.
Is a dark-skinned variety of grape? Syrah is grown in many countries through the world and is used to create powerful red wines or blended into other wines, where it can be either the major or minor component.
Is known in its native France as merlot noir, for the dark, blue-black color of its berries. Now planted widely in California, the grape yields a soft supple wine and is also used for blending with other wines.
Red wine grape whose origin is believed to come from an obscure Croatian grape. Winemakers agree that the American variety has unique qualities and makes better wine than does its European ancestors. This grape gives complex, well-balanced wine that age as well as the best French clarets.
Is the main red grape of Italy’s Chianti district and of much of central Italy, it can be made into light-bodied to medium-bodied wines, as well as into long-lived complex reds. Sangiovese is creating a new reputation of excellence in the wine growning regions of California.
Is an ancient French grape that under perfect conditions makes some of the best red wine in the world? Recent wines made from new plantings in the cooler growing regions of California are making Pinot Noir a favorite through the world.
Is a black wine grape variety primarily grown in the Piedmont region of northwest Italy, but brought to California by expatriate Italians. The name means “little sweet one” and produces wines of equal delight.
Whites from full to light-bodies
Is a green-skinned grape variety used to make America’s number one selling wine? Originating as the noble French grape variety used to create white Burgundies and Chablis, its vines adapt well to a variety of climates worldwide.
Seemed literally an endangered varietal only a few years ago, but is being rediscovered worldwide. Its homeland is the northern Rhone region of France, but is newest realm is California.
The wild grape of the Bordeaux region of France is now planted in many wine regions of the world and does particularly well in California vineyards.
Relatively easy to cultivate, although it is best suited to areas with sunny days and cool nights such as California.
A german-Alstian grape variety that makes excellent aromatic, almost spice, white wine. Today the grapes are found through California and the wines are particularly enjoyed with Asian cuisine.
Is the classic white gape of Alsace, Italy and Germany. Its skins can yield full-bodies, full-flavored and complex white, or pinkish, wine in cool growing regions through California.
***not my descriptions